Biology and its branches .

introduction of  Biology: The word biology is drived from two Greek words 'bios' meaning Life and 'logos' meaning discourse,thought,reason or simply study.      

Defination of biology: it is a branch of natural science that deals with organisms and different phenomena of life.

Main branches of biology: Biology has been divided into two main branches.

(1)Botany:(Greek:Botane means plants).It is branch of biology that deals with the scientific study of plants.

(2)Zoology:(Greek:zoo means animals).It is a branch of biology that deals with the scientfic study of animals.

Branches of biology:

(1)Morphology(Gr:Morphe = form):This branch deals with the study of external structural characteristics of plants and animals.

(2)Anatomy(Gr: Ana=up,tome=to cut):It deals with the internal strutures of organs of an organisms . in plants it deals with the arrangment of different types of tissues in root,stem,leaf etc.

(3)Histology(Gr:Histos=web or tissue):It deals with the study of tissue of plants and animals under a microscope .

(4)Cytology or Cell biology(Gr:kytos=hollow vessel or cell):The study of structure , function and composition of cell and cell organelles .

(5)Physiology(Gr: Phusis=nature):It is the study of functions of different parts of living organisms.

(6)Ecology(Gr:Oikos=home):It is the study of relationships of living organisms with each other and with their non-living environment and it is also called environmental biology.

(7)Embryology or developmental biology(Gr: Embryon= embryo):It is the study of progressive developmental changes which occur after zygote formation upto an organism is formed.

(8)Taxanomy(Gr:taxis=arrangment or grouping ; noms=laws related to naming):it deals with the discription , identification ,classfication and scientific naming of living organisms according to their similarties and dissimilarties.

(9)Genetics(Gr:Genesis=origin):It deals with the study of inheritence including transmission of heredity characters from parents to their offspring.

(10)Palaeontology(Gr:Palaious=anicent,ontos=being organisms):It is the study of animals and plants that lived in remote past and are now found as fossils in the rocks.

(11)Biochemistry:It deals with the chemistry and chemical aspects of the living system.

(12)Microbiology(Micro=very small):It deals with the study of microscope organisms such as virus , bacteria etc.

(13)Biotechnology:It is the manipulation of living things (animals,plants and microorganism) for the welfare of mankind. 

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